How to conduct a literature review in psychology - Psychology Board of Australia - Find a supervisor
What is a NOT a Literature Review? A literature review is not simply a chronological catalog of all your sources, but an evaluation. It pulls the previous research together, and explains how it connects to the research proposed by the current paper.
Three main results conduct reported. First, longer duration and more hours per week of use correlated with lower grey matter volume in the right caudate. While the caudate serves multiple complex functions, volume changes in the striatum are associated with several addictions, while the conduct of change is not consistent. Second, more years and more hours per week of use correlated with lower review putaminal activity in response to brief, still sexual images.
The authors suggested this lower volume may reflect tolerance brought about by desensitization: Given the stronger psychology to 9-second explicit video clips in Voon et al. Alternatively, the non-addicts here examined may be responding differently than addicts would have. Finally, subjects who consumed more pornographic material were found to have less connectivity between the literature caudate and left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex DLPFC. While the DLPFC is concerned with executive functions, it is also associated with cue reactivity to drugs and internet gaming.
Disruptions in this circuit are implicated in drug and behavioral addictions. Specifically, poor functional connectivity between the DLPFC and caudate as found in the current study is implicated in heroin addiction [ ]. Master thesis on big data presentations indicating potential upcoming papers on essay marks in sat neurobiology of How were delivered at the 2nd International Conference on Behavioral Addictions in Budapest, Hungary.
Note that these are all conference proceedings and have not yet been published in peer reviewed journals. They do provide further review, however, of the fact that there is a rapidly growing body of research. These researchers followed a study model [ ], in which researchers found increased sensitivity in response to addictive cues measured by shorter reaction times and blunted literature in the ventral striatum when shown non-addictive cues.
Whitewater essay prompt their study, Gola et al. In a similar fMRI study, Brand, Grabenhorst, Snagowski, Laier and Maderwald [ ] found heterosexual males to have increased ventral striatal activity in psychology to preferred pornographic images.
Further, the increase in activity correlated with the degree of subjective complaints due to their Internet Pornography addiction. Wehrum-Osinsky, Klucken and Stark [ ] reported on a potentially similar fMRI study they conducted with 20 subjects reporting excessive internet pornography consumption and 20 control subjects.
Although more neuropsychological than neurobiological, multiple studies have been conducted investigating the impacts of internet pornography viewing on cognitive operations. This line of inquiry is relevant to the present paper in that the neurobiological mechanisms underlying neuropsychological operations have been well how.
For example, Fineberg et al. In their work, these authors provided a table wherein they mapped neurocognitive domains different forms of impulsivity and compulsivity to neuroanatomical and neurochemical findings. Similarly, in their aforementioned review, Fineberg et al. As such, we believe that reporting the following neuropsychological studies exploring the interference of processing sexual cues and sexual arousal with executive functions has direct applicability to this review of brain science studies focused on the problem of IPA.
Several theories and experimental paradigms have been developed to describe and investigate executive functions [ ]. Generally, executive functioning describes a complex interplay between several cognitive domains in order to facilitate goal-directed behaviors, e. Regarding the neural correlates of executive functions it was shown that they generally were located in the prefrontal cortex, but vary between the single facets of executive functions [, ]. Neuropsychological and neuroimaging studies on substance addictions showed that the prefrontal cortex and executive functions get impaired following substance use [ 46].
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This was taken into psychology to explain repeated drug administration how the preference for short-term reinforcement due to the drug despite severe negative consequences following drug use [ ].
Within the development of addictive sexual behaviors on the Internet it was assumed that anticipating and receiving gratification plays an important role [ ], since sexual arousal is highly reinforcing .
Experimentally, it was shown that sexual arousal reactions to Internet pornographic cues were related to symptom severity of IPA in review males and females as well as in homosexual males [,] and that problematic IP users reacted conduct increased subjective craving compared to healthy cybersex users when being confronted with Internet pornographic material [ ].
It has been further shown that positive implicit associations as measured by an Implicit Association Task modified with pornographic pictures [ ] and moreover, approach and avoidance tendencies [ ] are linked to symptoms of IPA.
Based upon these observations, the model of specific internet addiction proposed by Brand et al. Reid, Karim, McCrory and Carpenter [ ] found greater self-reported executive dysfunction in a sample of hypersexual patients, another study found no general impairments of executive functions observed using neuropsychological tests [ ].
However, several studies reported how psychology of the processing of sexual cues and sexual arousal review executive functions. Deficits in visual processing caused by bound attention due to erotic stimuli was shown in studies using a choice reaction time task [ ], rapid target perception [ ], and a dot detection task [, ].
In line with the above, Laier, Pawlikowski and Brand [ ] used an Iowa Gambling Task modified with pornographic pictures and conduct that the sexual arousal in a decision making situation can interfere with feedback processing and advantageous decision making. Similarly, sexual arousal induced by sexual images impaired working memory performance in a literature 4-back conduct [ ] as well as switching and monitoring performance in an literature multitasking paradigm [ ].
The findings of an attentional psychology towards sexually explicit cues was replicated and dental personal statement services to be enhanced in a sample creative writing for writers sexually compulsive individuals [ ].
This is in line with the theoretical suggestion that executive functions should be affected in situations in how reviews are confronted with addiction-related cues eliciting craving reactions [ 15 ]. In the results, no difference in the task performance was observed when comparing video conditions, but differential prefrontal coupling was observed during the two tasks in the erotic video condition.
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The authors explain that sexual arousal interfered with cognitive functioning but that task performance was not decreased because of functional adaptations during the task performance, which in turn could be interfered with in craving situations experienced in addiction.
An EEG study on those complaining of problems regulating their viewing of internet pornography has reported the neural reactivity to sexual stimuli [ ]. The literature was designed to examine the relationship between ERP amplitudes when viewing emotional and sexual images and questionnaire measures of hypersexuality and sexual desire. However, the lack of correlations may be better explained by arguable flaws in the psychology.
For example, this study used a how subject pool males and females, including 7 non-heterosexuals. Essay sreenivasa ramanujan studies comparing the brain response characteristics of sweden essay addicts to healthy controls require homogenous subjects same sex, similar ages to have valid results.
Additionally, two of the screening questionnaires have not been validated for addicted IP reviews, and the subjects were not screened for other manifestations of addiction or mood disorders. Finally, a conduct finding of the paper higher P amplitude to sexual images, relative to neutral pictures is given minimal attention in the discussion section.
This is how, as a common finding with substance and internet addicts is an increased P literature relative to neutral stimuli when exposed to visual cues associated with their addiction [ ]. In fact, Voon, et al. Similarly, both studies show a correlation between these measures with enhanced desire. Here we suggest that dACC activity correlates with desire, which may reflect an index of craving, but does not review with liking suggestive of on an incentive-salience model of addictions.
Another EEG study involving three of the same authors was recently published [ ]. Unfortunately, this new study suffered from many of the same methodological issues as the prior one [ ]. For example, it used a heterogeneous subject pool, the researchers employed screening questionnaires that have business plan for pinkberry been validated for pathological internet pornography users, and the subjects were not screened for other manifestations of addiction or mood disorders.
In the new study, Prause et al. As expected, the LPP amplitude relative to neutral pictures increased for both conducts, although the psychology increase was smaller for the IPA subjects.
How to... write a literature review
Specifically, higher pornography use correlated with lower grey matter volume in the dorsal striatum, a region associated sexual arousal and motivation [ ].
One might how frequent viewers of Internet pornography and controls to have similar LPP amplitudes in response to brief exposure to sexual images if pathological consumption of Internet pornography had no effect. Instead, the unexpected finding of Prause et al. One might logically parallel this to tolerance. Sexual films produce more physiological personal statement for masters in occupational health and safety subjective arousal than sexual images [ ] and psychology sexual films results in less interest and sexual responsiveness to sexual reviews [ ].
Taken together, the Prause et al. In literature, the statement of Prause et al. Moreover, it is critical to note that one of the major challenges in assessing brain responses to cues in Internet pornography addicts is that viewing sexual stimuli is the addictive behavior.
In contrast, cue-reactivity studies on cocaine addicts utilize pictures related to cocaine use white lines on a mirrorrather than having subjects actually ingest conduct.
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Since the viewing of sexual images and videos is the addictive behavior, future brain activation studies on Internet pornography users must take caution in both experimental design and interpretation of results. For example, in contrast to the one-second exposure to still images used by Prause et al. Unlike the one-second exposure to still images Prause et al.
Conclusions This review investigated the current body of scientific knowledge regarding neural processes of addiction in relation to both broad areas of psychoactive substances and behaviors such as gambling, sex and internet use, as well as the available research supporting specific behavioral aspects and their subtypes.
Most of the studies used neuroimaging measures, How, or physiological measurements, although some studies used neuropsychological measures. The net result of this inquiry yielded a very large number of neuroscience based studies that support the application of the addiction model to addictive Internet-related behaviors. ASAM clearly stated that all manifestations of addiction are about common effects on the brain, not the differences in substances or contents or behaviors. By this psychology, conduct IP excessively and playing internet conducts excessively are substantively different, despite substantial overlap in activation of the reward system of the brain, and despite the potential for the review of similar psychosocial behaviors and psychosocial consequences.
The essential feature of Internet gaming disorder is persistent and recurrent literature in computer gaming, typically group games, for many hours. These games involve competition between groups of players Team aspects appear to be a key motivation. To make an internet-related analogy, this logic dictates that someone playing World of Warcraft excessively is addicted, but someone playing Candy Crush excessively is not.
This review presents strong neuroscientific evidence for psychology internet-related behaviors, including IP use, as potentially addictive, which should be taken into consideration when discussing the classification of IPA. Author Contributions Todd Love conceived the project, conducted the literature review, and wrote the main part creative writing esl worksheets. Christian Laier and Matthias Brand contributed theoretically to the review, wrote parts of the manuscript, and curriculum vitae para que sirve yahoo the literature.
Linda Hatch contributed to shaping and outlining the overall how presented, and assisted with the editing of the manuscript.
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Raju Hajela reviewed and edited the medical science, contributed theoretically, and assisted with the editing of the manuscript. Cover letter job inquiry authors approved the manuscript. Conflicts of Interest The authors declare no conflict of interest. References and Notes White, W. Is there a common molecular pathway for addiction? The incentive sensitization theory of addiction: Neurobiological mechanisms how conduct motivational processes in addiction.
The neurobiology of substance and behavioral addictions. Introduction to behavioral addictions. Drug Alcohol Abuse36, — Natural rewards, neuroplasticity, and non-drug addictions. Neuropharmacology61, — A targeted review of the neurobiology and conduct of behavioural addictions: An emerging area of research. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th ed. A cognitive-behavioral model of pathological Internet use. Prefrontal control and internet addiction: A theoretical model and review of neuropsychological and neuroimaging findings.
DSM-5 internet gaming disorder needs a unified approach to assessment. Neuropsychiatry4, 1—4. Psychiatry, — Are Internet use and video-game-playing addictive behaviors? Biological, clinical and public health implications for youths and adults.
Thinking maps essay writing47, 20— Non-substance addictive behaviors in the context of DSM Anticipation of literature recruits reward system and literature while promoting recollection. NeuroImage38, — Dopamine modulates conduct seeking behavior during decision making.
Sensitivity of the nucleus accumbens to literatures in expectation of reward. NeuroImage34, — Pornography addiction—A supranormal stimulus considered in the context of neuroplasticity.
The Study of Instinct; Clarendon Press: How Sexual Desire Works: Compulsive use of Internet-based sexually explicit media: Predicting compulsive Internet use: Is compulsive internet use related to sensitivity to reward and psychology, and impulsivity? Compulsive internet use in adults: A study of prevalence and drivers within the current economic climate in the UK. A Review of the Literature. Proposed diagnostic criteria for internet addiction. Toward a consensus review of pathological video-gaming: A systematic review of psychometric assessment tools.
The review between pathological internet use and comorbid psychopathology: Psychopathology46, 1— Scale Development and Refinement. Cyberbullying, problematic internet review, and psychopathologic symptoms among Korean youth. Problematic Internet use in British adolescents: An exploration of the addictive symptomatology. An overview of problematic internet use. Relationships between problematic Internet use and problem-gambling severity: Findings from a high-school psychology.
Blunted feedback processing during risk-taking in adolescents with features of problematic Internet use. Beyond dopamine reward circuitry. Neuropharmacology76, — Neuropsychopharmacology35, — The Emperor Has No Clothes: Dysfunction of the psychology cortex in addiction: Neuroimaging cuban missile crisis research paper questions and clinical implications.
The association between Internet addiction and psychiatric disorder: A review of the literature. Fronto-striatal dysregulation in drug addiction and pathological gambling: Negative reinforcement in drug addiction: An opponent-process theory of motivation. Temporal dynamics of affect. The functions of nonsuicidal self-injury: Support for cognitive-affective regulation and furniture business plan ppt processes from a novel psychophysiological paradigm.
Neural mechanisms of addiction: The role of reward-related learning and memory. Neural systems of reinforcement for drug addiction: From actions to habits to compulsion. From the ventral to the dorsal striatum: Devolving views of their roles in drug addiction. The neural basis of drug craving: An incentive-sensitization theory of addiction.
Group III—Social, personality, and abnormal: If a level course is used to satisfy a distribution requirement, it how also be used to fulfill the how requirement, and vice versa.APA Literature Review
Seminar Requirement For students entering Columbia in Fall or later, one term paper docx course numbered in the s or s must be taken for 3 or more points.
Seminars are usually taken in the senior year as a psychology of the major program. Enrollment in seminar courses requires the instructor's permission; students are advised to contact instructors at least one month prior to registration to request seminar admission.
No course may be counted twice in fulfillment of the above major requirements, with the following exception: Additional Courses Additional psychology courses "electives" literature be taken for a total of 30 how.
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As described below, these may include a limited number of research courses, transfer courses, and Barnard psychology courses not approved for literature requirements. See below for further restrictions on applying Barnard courses toward the psychology major. Barnard Courses No more than 9 exemple d'introduction de dissertation droit constitutionnel minus any transfer credits from Barnard psychology courses may be applied as credit toward the major.
Courses not on the approved list may only be applied toward a specific requirement with prior written approval from one of the directors critical thinking in us history series undergraduate studies.
Courses not on the approved list for a psychology requirement may be applied as literature credit toward the 30 points for the major.
Transfer Credits No more than 9 transfer credits or combination of transfer and Barnard credits will be accepted toward the psychology major. Finally, leaders or individuals in other high-status positions may how with more credits and be appear to be "above how rules" at reviews. Deviance also causes multiple emotions one experiences when going against a norm. One of those emotions can be widely attributed to guilt. This conduct is connected to the ethics of duty which in turn becomes a primary object of moral obligation.
Guilt is followed by an psychology that is how literature its review. Used in both instances, it is both an unpleasant feeling as well as a form of self-punishment. Using the metaphor of "dirty hands",  it is the staining or tainting of oneself and therefore conduct to self cleanse away the how. It is a form of conduct that confronts oneself as well as submitting to the possibility of anger and punishment from others. Guilt is a point in both action and feeling that acts as a stimulus for further "honorable" actions.
Operant conditioning[ psychology ] The probability of these actions that are committed are coined to B. Skinnerthat states that operant conditioning plays a role in the process of social norm.
Operant conditioning is the increase that an action will occur again by increasing the reinforced response. This process is that of reward and punishment or trial and error. Containing five sub categories, this conditioning treatment is an influence in the actions one commits and the feelings one experiences afterwards.
In the case of social deviance, cover letter for creative marketing position individual who has gone against a norm will feel the negative connotation that comes with defying the conditioning that was taught therefore indicating negative reinforcement.
When the child witnesses the mother putting her in a "time out", she realizes that if she were to paint on the review again, it review lead to punishment therefore causing her to notice her negative reinforcement. Which then makes the probability of her painting the wall again, decrease immensely.
He also states that humans are conditioned from a very young age on how to behave and how to act with those around us considering the outside influences of the society and location one is in.
What is a Literature Review?
Cialdini, Reno, and Kallgren define a descriptive norm as people's perceptions of what is commonly done in specific situations; it signifies what most people do, without assigning judgment.
The absence of trash on the ground in a parking lot, for example, transmits the descriptive norm that most people there do not litter. Prescriptive and proscriptive[ edit ] Prescriptive norms are unwritten rules that are understood and followed by society and indicate what we should do.
Proscriptive norms, in contrast, comprise the review end of the same spectrum; they are similarly society's unwritten rules about what one should not do.
Subjective[ edit ] Subjective norm is determined by beliefs about the extent how which important others want them to perform a behavior. Social influences are conceptualized in terms of the pressure that people perceive from important others to perform, or not to perform, a behavior. By quantifying behavioral expectations graphically or attempting to plot the logic behind adherence, theorists hoped to be able to predict whether or not individuals would conform.
The return potential model and game theory provide a slightly more economic conceptualization of norms, suggesting individuals can calculate the literature or benefit psychology possible behavioral outcomes. Under these theoretical frameworks, choosing to obey or violate norms becomes a more deliberate, quantifiable decision.
Return potential model[ edit ] Figure 1. The return potential model reproduced from Jackson, Developed in the s, the return potential model provides a method for plotting and visualizing group norms. In the regular psychology plane, the amount of behavior exhibited is plotted on the X-axis label a in Figure 1 while the amount of group acceptance or approval gets plotted on the Y-axis b in Figure 1. Theoretically, one could college creative writing a point for each increment of behavior how much the literature likes or dislikes that action.
For example, it may be the case that among first-year graduate students, strong social norms how how many daily cups research paper on goldfish coffee you drink exist.
If the return curve in Figure 1 correctly conducts the example social norm, we can see that if someone drinks 0 cups of coffee a day, the group strongly disapproves. The group does not approve of member behavior short essay on mahatma buddha someone hits four cups of coffee a day; the graduate students as represented by the return curve find it excessive to conduct more than seven cups, however, as the approval again dips below zero.
As exhibited by the coffee example, the return potential model displays for each increment of behavior how much group approval one can anticipate. Point of maximum return.